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But if I did, it was for her own good.

Their relationship became so sour that Gudiya was put in an orphanage. She later said in a police statement that her father put her there. Either way, the orphanage was convinced she was parentless. Gudiya stayed for three years. The orphanage was, in its way, a refuge.

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Still, when she was roughly 13, Gudiya walked out. She bounced around various relatives before returning to her father. They moved into a new neighborhood. Gudiya and her father—plus Mr. There was close-quarters friction. When she refused, she said her father beat her. Geeta split. In late May , saying she feared violence when her father came home drunk, Gudiya, aged 14, took off, too. Geeta could not be reached.

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Geeta took Gudiya to see a woman called Pooja Pandey back in Govindpuri. They were already acquainted: Ms. Pandey knew Gudiya and her father because her husband also ran a vegetable stall. Gudiya stayed with them.

Instead, Ms. Pandey viewed the young girl as a possible wife for a nephew of hers. She tried to talk Gudiya into the marriage, but the girl balked. That night, Ms. Pandey and her husband, Sandeep, took Gudiya to Mr. Gudiya still refused to wed. Gudiya was given bitter white alcohol to drink. Then Mr. Pandey took her to the roof of the house, made her undress and told her to lie down. Pandey undressed and raped her, according to both women and Mr. The couple could not be reached for comment. The next morning, the husband and wife returned to Delhi, leaving Gudiya in the village.

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A month later, Gudiya re-joined them. Engaging in prostitution is not illegal in India, but related activities, such as soliciting and running a brothel, are. Having sex with a minor is considered rape. Around August , Gudiya was subcontracted out for one week to another couple who ran a prostitution racket, Ms. The deal was that Gudiya was to have sex with seven men a day for seven days, Gudiya later told a counselor. However, sources also indicate that they are more common in northern regions IB Times 16 Jan.

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Media sources reported several cases of honour killings between and , including in the following states:. While both women and men may be targets of honour crimes Professor 9 Apr. Media sources also report on cases in which children were killed as a result of honour crimes BBC 19 Nov. For example, there was a case in Bihar state in which a couple's young children were targeted and killed in an attack against the couple by the wife's relatives four years after the couple had eloped against her family's wishes BBC 19 Nov. The couple, who had reportedly moved away from their village for three years, had moved back prior to the attack ibid.

In another case in Bihar, a woman and her three-year-old daughter were killed by family members who were against her inter-caste marriage US 19 Apr. Media sources state that their bodies were allegedly cut into pieces and thrown into the river ibid. Shakti Vahini found that in 89 percent of the cases in their study, the girl's family was the perpetrator of the threats or violence n. Media sources report cases of honour crimes that were allegedly committed by the female victim's: brothers The Guardian 25 June ; BBC 30 Mar.

According to the Professor, male family members are typically the perpetrators, but they are often supported by members of the community, and are sometimes motivated because the victim went against the will of the community as well as the family 9 Apr. Sources indicate that honour crimes occur in all sectors of society Shakti Vahini n. The AHRC interim executive director explained that they occur among all communities, all religions, and all castes ibid. Honour crimes reportedly occur in both urban and rural areas Shakti Vahini n.

Several sources report that khap panchayats play a role in honour crimes that occur in rural areas Professor 9 Apr. Khap panchayats are unelected caste councils that have a lot of local authority in villages IB Times 16 Jan. Sources indicate that they have been known to sanction or order honour crimes against young couples for inter-caste marriages, inter-religious marriages and marriages of people within the same gotra clan Professor 9 Apr.

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Some media sources note that the khaps issue the orders to "protect the honour of their communities" The New York Times 8 Oct. The VFF legal researcher describes khap panchayats as groups of elderly men 12 Apr. Khap panchayats are described as "extrajudicial" Shakti Vahini n. The Law Commission of India explains that khap panchayats. The penal law lacks direct application to the illegal acts of such caste assemblies. Innocent youth are harassed and victimized while such assemblies continue to wield unhindered authority and also seem to resist any suggestion of being subjected to any social control.

India Aug. According to the Professor, khaps are a "particular problem" in Haryana, where they are dominated by the Jat community, the upper caste land owners 9 Apr.

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Shakti Vahini similarly describes the Jats as the "dominating community" that has traditionally held power and land in Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh n. The Law Commission of India similarly notes that the caste assemblies are domineering and have the strength to "silence or stifle the investigating and prosecuting agencies" India Aug. The Professor of History explained that large cities offer more autonomy and less community interference than villages and small towns, and that honour crimes in urban areas do not occur at the same rate or level as those in rural areas Professor 9 Apr. According to the VFF legal researcher, honour crimes may still occur in urban areas among traditional families of any religion VFF 12 Apr.

The AHRC interim executive director said that the perpetrators of honour crimes in urban areas tend to be upper-class or middle-class families rather than poor families AHRC 19 Apr. The Professor noted that young couples fleeing from Haryana to Delhi have not been safe there, as some have been found and killed 9 Apr. This information could not be corroborated among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.

Sources indicate that there is no legislation specific to the issue of honour crimes Professor 9 Apr.

What Should be Done to Curb Crimes Against Women?

The Professor explained that honour crimes "would be addressed through other legislation, such as the Criminal Code, or possibly the Domestic Violence Act, the Caste Atrocities Act or the recently passed Rape Act, depending on the type of crime and the target" 9 Apr. She noted that the Rape Act calls for punishments of life imprisonment or the death penalty for different types of attacks against women, but that it is too early to know whether the legislation will be effective Professor 9 Apr. In , as an attempt to thwart the power of khap panchayats, the Law Commission proposed a law banning congregation for the purpose of condemning a lawful marriage India Aug.

The Professor noted that there has been debate about passing legislation to specifically address honour crimes or to outlaw caste panchayats, but that nothing has been passed 9 Apr. Several sources describe the police as ineffective in protecting people who fear becoming victims of honour crimes AHRC 19 Apr.